The pain of a migraine headache is often described as an intense pulsing or throbbing pain in one area of the head. However, it is much more; the International Headache Society diagnoses a migraine by its pain and number of attacks (at least 5, lasting 4-72 hours if untreated), and additional symptoms including nausea and/or vomiting, or sensitivity to both light and sound.
Who does Migraine affect more?
Migraine is three times more common in women than in men and affects more than 10 percent of people worldwide.
What do you feel in migraine?
Roughly one-third of affected individuals can predict the onset of a migraine because it is preceded by an “aura,” visual disturbances that appear as flashing lights, zig-zag lines or a temporary loss of vision. People with migraine tend to have recurring attacks triggered by a number of different factors, including stress, anxiety, hormonal changes, bright or flashing lights, lack of food or sleep, and dietary substances.
Migraine in Women-
Migraine in some women may relate to changes in hormones and hormonal levels during their menstrual cycle. For many years, scientists believed that migraines were linked to the dilation and constriction of blood vessels in the head. Investigators now believe that migraine has a genetic cause.
There is no absolute cure for migraine since its pathophysiology has yet to be fully understood. There are two ways to approach the treatment of migraine headache with drugs: prevent the attacks, or relieve the symptoms during the attacks. Prevention involves the use of medications and behavioural changes. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved erenumab (Aimovig) to prevent migraine in adults. The drug works by blocking the activity of calcitonin gene-related peptide, a molecule that is involved in migraine attacks. The FDA also has approved lasmiditan (Reyvow) for short-term treatment of migraine with our without aura. The FDA also has approved ubrogepant tablets (Ubrelvy) for immediate treatment of migraine with or without aura. Drugs originally developed for epilepsy, depression, or high blood pressure to prevent future attacks have been shown to be extremely effective in treating migraine. Botulinum toxin A has been shown to be effective in prevention of chronic migraine.
What can you do to prevent Migraine?
Behaviorally, stress management strategies, such as exercise, relaxation techniques, biofeedback mechanisms, and other therapies designed to limit daily discomfort, may reduce the number and severity of migraine attacks. Making a log of personal triggers of migraine can also provide useful information for trigger-avoiding lifestyle changes, including dietary considerations, eating regularly scheduled meals with adequate hydration, stopping certain medications, and establishing a consistent sleep schedule.
Hormone therapy may help some women whose migraines seem to be linked to their menstrual cycle. A weight loss program is recommended for obese individuals with migraine.
Relief of symptoms, or acute treatments, during attacks consists of sumatriptan, ergotamine drugs, and analgesics such as ibuprofen and aspirin. The sooner these treatments are administered, the more effective they are.
Responsive prevention and treatment of migraine is incredibly important. Evidence shows an increased sensitivity after each successive attack, eventually leading to chronic daily migraine in some individuals With proper combination of drugs for prevention and treatment of migraine attacks most individuals can overcome much of the discomfort from this debilitating disorder. Women whose migraine attacks occur in association with their menstrual cycle are likely to have fewer attacks and milder symptoms after menopause.
New Research Development:-
1.Hypersensitivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide in chronic migraine
Chronic migraine patients are hypersensitive to calcitonin gene-related peptide. The potency of calcitonin gene-related peptide as a migraine inductor is increased in chronic migraine patients with ongoing headache. We suggest that calcitonin gene-related peptide, besides being a migraine trigger also acts as a modulator of nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system.
“Iljazi A, Ashina H, Zhuang ZA, Lopez Lopez C, Snellman J, Ashina M, Schytz HW. Hypersensitivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide in chronic migraine. Cephalalgia. 2020 Dec 15:333102420981666. doi: 10.1177/0333102420981666. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33322922.”
2.Demographic and clinical characteristics of prevention-eligible patients with migraine in the US: A linked national survey and administrative claims database study.
Prevention-eligible patients experience greater burden due to migraine, including more headache days, worse health-related quality-of-life, and greater work and activity impairment than prevention non-eligible patients.
“Foster SA, Balkaran BL, Cambron-Mellott MJ, Samaan K, Mason O, Ye W, Rowland JC, Jaffe DH. Demographic and clinical characteristics of prevention-eligible patients with migraine in the US: A linked national survey and administrative claims database study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2020 Dec 17:1. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2020.1865749. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33331205.”
Society for Head-Ache and Migraine
19 Mantua Road
Mt. Royal, NJ 08061
300 East 75th Street
New York, NY 10021
820 N. Orleans
Chicago, IL 60610-3132
Tel: 312-274-2650; 888-NHF-5552 (643-5552)
1.National Institute of Health/NINDS
2.Foster SA, Balkaran BL, Cambron-Mellott MJ, Samaan K, Mason O, Ye W, Rowland JC, Jaffe DH. Demographic and clinical characteristics of prevention-eligible patients with migraine in the US: A linked national survey and administrative claims database study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2020 Dec 17:1. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2020.1865749. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33331205.
3. Iljazi A, Ashina H, Zhuang ZA, Lopez Lopez C, Snellman J, Ashina M, Schytz HW. Hypersensitivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide in chronic migraine. Cephalalgia. 2020 Dec 15:333102420981666. doi: 10.1177/0333102420981666. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33322922.
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The information in this website has been sourced from National Institute of Health .
Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.