Stroke is a Cerebrovascular accident causing hemorrhage or clot formation in brain .
The three main types of stroke are :
1. Ischemic stroke.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke.
3. Transient ischemic attack (a warning or “mini-stroke”).
Most strokes nearly (87%) are ischemic strokes. An ischemic stroke happens when blood flow through the artery that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the brain becomes blocked.Blood clots often cause the blockages that lead to ischemic strokes.
It occurs because of rupture of blood vessel or leakage of blood in brain ,this leaked blood will form clot and puts pressure on the surrounding brain tissue causing damage to the brain cells and ultimately their deathHigh blood pressure is a major cause commonly observed in patients of hemorrhagic stroke precipitated by various factors e.g stress emotional or physical, consumption of alcohol, smoking ,use of tobacco and various other factors.
There are two types of hemorrhagic strokes:
Intracerebral hemorrhage is the most common type of hemorrhagic stroke. It occurs when an artery in the brain bursts, flooding the surrounding tissue with blood. Symptom vary depending on the area of brain where hemorrhage took place.Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a less common type of hemorrhagic stroke. It refers to bleeding in the area between the brain and the thin tissues that cover it. Symptoms of subarachnoid hemorrhage is mostly a worst headache (very severe).
May be described as the worst headache of your life
Transient Ischemic Attack
It is sometimes called a mini stroke . The blood flow, to brain tissue is interrupted for a very short time (not more than five minutes)
A TIA is a warning sign of a future stroke.
A TIA is a medical emergency, just like a major stroke.People who don’t take a transient stroke seriously and don’t start treatment are at much greater risk to get a stroke in very less time By knowing the signs and symptoms of stroke, you can take quick action and perhaps save a life—maybe even your own.
Signs of Stroke in Men and Women
- Sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body.
- Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or difficulty understanding speech.
- Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
- Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance, or lack of coordination.
- Sudden severe headache with no known cause.
Can help stroke patients get the treatments they desperately need. The stroke treatments that work best are available only if the stroke is recognized and diagnosed within 3 hours of the first symptoms. Stroke patients may not be eligible for these if they don’t arrive at the hospital in time.
If you think someone may be having a stroke, act F.A.S.T. and do the following simple test:
F—Face: Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop?
A—Arms: Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward?
S—Speech: Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is the speech slurred or strange?
T—Time: If you see any of these signs, call Ambulance
STROKE IN MEN
At least half men have high blood pressure greater than or equal to 130/80 mm of Hg .Even a lot of men are on medication for stroke but a lot of them are non compliant for the medication which makes there condition more serious.
Risk Factors :1.Smoking2.Overweight Obesity3.Diabetes4.Chronic Alcoholic5.Less physical activity6.Eating too much salt, or sodium, can raise your blood pressure, putting you at higher risk of stroke.
STROKE IN WOMEN
Stroke risk increases with age, and women live longer than men.Women have risk factors like : 1.Raised cholesterol2.High blood pressure3.Birth control medication use4.Depression
Risk factors in men are also applicable for women in a generalized approach
How to prevent stroke
1. Lifestyle modification : This is the most important part to focus for preventing stroke , it includes increasing physical activity and stopping smoking and reducing cholesterol intake and regulating salt intake , eating healthy and increasing physical activity .2. Modern Health Improvement Technique : Various health applications are providing all the data to prevent you from heart problems e.g scoring 150 heart points according to American Heart Association will prevent you from heart problems.
Popular Health Applications :1. Google fit2. Apple health
What to Expect After a Stroke
If you have had a stroke, you can make great progress in regaining your independence. However, some problems may continue:1. Paralysis (inability to move some parts of the body), weakness, or both on one side of the body.2. Trouble with thinking, awareness, attention, learning, judgment, and memory.3. Problems understanding or forming speech.4. Trouble controlling or expressing emotions.5. Numbness or strange sensations.6. Pain in the hands and feet that worsens with movement and temperature changes.7. Trouble with chewing and swallowing.8. Problems with bladder and bowel control.
Depression Stroke Rehabilitation
Rehab can include working with speech, physical, and occupational therapists.Speech therapy helps people who have problems producing or understanding speech.Physical therapy uses exercises to help you relearn movement and coordination skills you may have lost because of the stroke.Occupational therapy focuses on improving daily activities, such as eating, drinking, dressing, bathing, reading, and writing.
To know more :
Source:Harrison’s principles of internal Medicine/Stroke
References1. Mozzafarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, et al., on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2016;133(4):e38–360.2. American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack). Accessed October 6, 2016.