Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a chronic neurological syndrome also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). RSD / CPRS occurs when the nervous system functions abnormally after an injury. Symptoms include severe burning pain, pathological changes in the bones and skin, excessive sweating, swelling in the tissues, and extreme sensitivity to touch.
RSD / CRPS can be diagnosed when an injury occurs, even if it is a bit normal, usually fails to heal. There is no laboratory test that can diagnose RSD / CPRS, but a doctor can make a diagnosis based on past medical history and physical examination results. Usually when a patient has a history of trauma to the affected area, and an injury that includes an unusual pain, doctors can diagnose RSD / CRPS if the injury is accompanied by one of the following:
2. Movement Disorders
3. Abnormal function of the sympathetic nervous system
4. Changes in tissue growth.
There are two types of complex regional pain. Type I is referred to as RSD, and type II is referred to as Casalgia.
Type I involves a nerve injury that is not immediately recognizable. It starts with an immovable event that involves numerous pains. Edema is followed by a change in skin color or a change in skin temperature, which is caused by skin blood flow. The injured area may also be affected by abnormal pseudo-motor activity.
Type II involves a distinct large nerve injury that produces persistent pain for a long time after the injury has occurred. Like type I, this is also followed by abnormal soot-motor activity at the stage of injury, as well as edema and changes in skin blood flow.
Currently, there is no cure for RSD / CPRS. However, there are treatment methods that can reduce the pain and prevent the problem from getting worse.
Doctors weigh many factors when deciding what type of medication to use. It is common for patients to use many medications to control pain. Patients are always given a sequence of medications to determine which works best.
The following factors are considered when determining what type of medication to use:
1. Persistent pain
2. Inflammatory pain
3. Muscle cramps
4. Spontaneous pain
5. Pain that interferes with sleep
Mp. Sympathetic maintenance pain (SMP)
7. Pain due to a recent injury
2. Physical therapy
Physical therapy, hydrotherapy, massage therapy and pool therapy can help relieve pain for CRPS patients. Pain can also be reduced through techniques such as applying pressure. Physical therapists can also educate patients about the different ways they can use their injured body parts.
3. Sympathetic nerve blocks
Sympathetic nerve blocks will reduce pain and can provide important diagnostic information. Chronic pain is often caused by the sympathetic nerves that control blood flow, sweating, and glandular function. When the nerves are blocked, the pain is relieved. For example, pain in the legs and feet can be relieved when the lumbar spinal nerve is blocked on the spine in the lower part of the leg. Moreover, when the spinal nerves in the lower extremities are blocked, pain in the face, arms and hands can be relieved.
4. Surgical sympathectomy
When the patient has sympathetic maintenance pain (SMP) there is a significant reduction in sympathetic blistering pain. On the other hand, while sympathetic blocks do not relieve pain, the patient has sympathetically independent pain (SIP). To insert a permanent nerve block, surgical sympathectomy can be performed on patients with SMP. Sympathectomy is an invasive surgery, so it is usually a last resort option. Before taking a sympathectomy, patients should consult their doctors about possible complications.