Multiple sclerosis is a disease that manifests itself differently in different people. No two features show the same exact set. Some people may have only one symptom that disappears months or years later. Some suffer from many symptoms that can get worse in a few weeks or even months. For some people the symptoms may increase steadily over time while for others there may be periodic recurrence and remission.
Why do symptoms vary from person to person?
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder that affects different areas of the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms vary depending on the affected nerve. MS is actually an immune-mediated inflammatory disease. It damages the protective myelin sheath that covers the brain and spinal nerves. The scar tissue replaces the myelin sheath in the affected region and covers different areas at different points at the time of damage. The frequency and severity of the symptoms depends on how deep and severe the damage is. Therefore, there is no defined pattern of presentation in MS.
What are the different possible symptoms?
M.S. Despite the variety of manifestations in, there are some common symptoms that people with the disease usually complain of.
Change in vision
In many cases, visual problems are the first symptoms to be considered. This is due to the involvement of the optic nerve. These nerves extend from the eyeball to the brain. When nerve inflammation occurs, it leads to a condition called optic neuritis. The result is a painful reduction or loss of vision in the affected eye. The pain becomes more pronounced during the movement of the eyeball involved. Defective color vision can also occur. Another common visual feature is double vision. This is caused by a condition called nystagmus, which means involuntary movement of the eyes.
Peresthesia or abnormal arousal
This is another common early symptom of MS. Numbness, tingling sensation, burning and itching are usually caused by people with MS. These abnormal sensations can occur anywhere in the body depending on the nerves involved. Some common sites are the face, hands, fingers and feet.
The myelin sheath ensures rapid conduction of nerve signals to the brain and spinal cord. Due to myelin sheath and nerve damage, the signals are not executed properly. This leads to circumcision. When the nerve pathways that transmit signals such as contact, pain, and temperature are affected, some non-specific altered sensations such as tingling, burning, and itching occur. This is due to hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli such as exaggerated feedback or light touch. This unusual sensation can occur even without any stimulation.
Stretching and stretching of muscles
Involuntary muscle spasms are common in people with MS. Stretching (pain) is caused by stretching of the muscles and is usually felt in the legs. Specity makes the movement of muscles difficult. Therefore, people need more energy to carry out their daily activities. Ultimately leading to muscle weakness and fatigue. Fatigue is a common symptom that most people with MS complain about. It can come suddenly without a history of any diligence.
Loss of balance and coordination
The cerebellum of the brain helps maintain balance and coordination. Involvement of this part leads to difficulty in maintaining balance while walking and coordination problems like holding objects by hand. In addition, fatigue and numbness make walking difficult. Vibration, dizziness, light-headedness, slurred speech and dizziness are some of the other manifestations of cerebellar and brain stem involvement.
Another strange problem that is commonly found in people with MS is hypersensitivity to heat. Symptoms of MS are exacerbated or exacerbated by an increase in body temperature or a warm surrounding area.
Bladder and bowel disorders
These symptoms are very common in people with MS. Bladder problems include frequent urination, nicoturia (frequent urination at night), urge to urinate, incomplete emptying, and urinary incontinence (leakage). Constipation is an intestinal disorder seen in people with MS. Diarrhea and intestinal incontinence are less common.
Women with MS complain of vaginal dryness and men have difficulty maintaining erection. Both men and women are not interested in sexual activity and have difficulty achieving orgasm. Sexual dysfunction is another common problem faced by most people with MS.
About half of people with MS have cognitive difficulties. Memory problems and attention difficulties are common cognitive problems. Some people have problems understanding and using the language. People also face difficulties in determining, reasoning, planning and implementing scheduled activities.
Depression is more common in people with MS. The real cause of depression is not very clear. It may be due to nerve damage or other painful symptoms of MS. Anxiety, irritability and mood swings are not uncommon. Some people with MS may show a condition Pseudobulbar affects. This condition is characterized by rapid and uncontrollable mood swings with episodes of laughing and crying inconsistent with current conditions.
Seizures, difficulty swallowing, and difficulty breathing are other non-specific symptoms through which multiple sclerosis can present itself.
As it is clear, most of the manifestations of multiple sclerosis are subjective – it is felt by the person who suffers from this disease and is not visible to others. Numerous manifestations and unexpected patterns of their presentation make it difficult to diagnose multiple sclerosis.
Moreover, the symptoms of the disease are not specific to it – it can occur in other conditions as well. It is as difficult to diagnose MS as it is to diagnose the condition.