It is a leading cause of Senile Dementia, Pre-senile Dementia .
Dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral, and social skills that disrupts a person’s ability to function independently.
A person keeps forgetting small things like where he kept his phone frequently and subsequently larger things like what is his name?
Symptoms of ALZHEIMER’S
1. Memory loss is the main and prominent symptom of ALZHIEMERS disease.
2. Early symptoms includes forgetting recent events and later past events .
3. A family member is likely to notice the change in behaviour on how the forgetting of things has increased in the past.
Symptoms in People with Alzheimer’s
- Repeat statements and questions over and over
- Forget conversations, appointments or events, and not remember them later
- Routinely misplace possessions, often putting them in illogical locations
- Get lost in familiar places
- Eventually forget the names of family members and everyday objects
- Have trouble finding the right words to identify objects, express thoughts or take part in conversations.
Thinking and reasoning
is severely impaired in this condition especially the ability to manage finances paying bills .These difficulties may progress to an inability to recognize and deal with numbers . Ability of making decisions and judgements is also severely impaired.
Planning and performing familiar tasks
Routine activities which require sequential steps following to achieve target may become difficult as the persons train of thought might totally get derailed.
Changes in personality and behavior
Brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease can affect moods and behaviors. Problems may include the following:
- Social withdrawal
- Mood swings
- Distrust in others
- Irritability and aggressiveness
- Changes in sleeping habits
- Loss of inhibitions
- Delusions, such as believing something has been stolen
Helpful products for patients suffering from Dementia
Less than 1 percent of the time, Alzheimer’s is caused by specific genetic changes that virtually guarantee a person will develop the disease. These rare occurrences usually result in disease onset in middle age.
The exact causes of Alzheimer’s disease aren’t fully understood, but at its core are problems with brain proteins that fail to function normally, disrupt the work of brain cells (neurons) and unleash a series of toxic events. Neurons are damaged, lose connections to each other and eventually die.
Genetic chromosomes related to ALZHEIMER’s are
In patients with Trisomy of 21st chromosome [Down’s Syndrome] if the patient has survived until 35 years makes the patient at high risk for pre senile dementia .
Severity of the disease is based on intraneuronal amount of neurofibrillary tangles.
Beta-amyloid is a leftover fragment of a larger protein. When these fragments cluster together, they appear to have a toxic effect on neurons and to disrupt cell-to-cell communication. These clusters form larger deposits called amyloid plaques, which also include other cellular debris.
Tau proteins play a part in a neuron’s internal support and transport system to carry nutrients and other essential materials. In Alzheimer’s disease, tau proteins change shape and organise themselves into structures called neurofibrillary tangles. The tangles disrupt the transport system and are toxic to cells.
Risk factors –
1.Age increasing age is the biggest risk factor.
2.Family history and genetics-
3.Genetic chromosomes identified related to ALZHEIMER’s are
Presence of chromosome 1/14/19/21
In patients with Trisomy of 21st chromosome [Down’s Syndrome] if the patient has survived until 35 years makes the patient at high risk for pre senile dementia.
One more understood risk factor is a form of the apolipoprotein E gene, APOE e4 increases the risk of Alzheimer’s.
Mild cognitive impairment
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a decline in memory or other thinking skills that is greater than what would be expected for a person’s age, but the decline doesn’t prevent a person from functioning in social or work environments.
People who have MCI have a significant risk of developing dementia. When the primary MCI deficit is memory, the condition is more likely to progress to dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease. A diagnosis of MCI enables the person to focus on healthy lifestyle changes, develop strategies to compensate for memory loss and schedule regular doctor appointments to monitor symptoms.
2.Altered sleep pattern
Lack of exercise
Raised blood pressure
Poorly controlled type 2 DM
1.Inability to communicate properly.
2.Inability to complete tasks
3.Forgetting name an their address can be life threatening and the patients with such conditions need to be kept in care.
4.Inhaling of food or water may cause choking or pneumonia
Alzheimer’s is a non preventable condition however following a healthy lifestyle might help .
FOR DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT YOU SHOULD CONSULT YOUR DOCTOR AS SOON AS POSSIBLE .
A functional MRI is useful and shows dilated ventricles and atrophied cortex .
Drugs are available to relieve some of the symptoms of the disease.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Harrison’s principles of internal medicine/Alzheimer’s Disease